Chapter 8: Limitations on Relief
This chapter will explore the contours of the primary limitations on suing states, state subdivisions, and state officials in federal court. The first section surveys the Eleventh Amendment and focuses on important recent developments in this area. It covers the abrogation and waiver of sovereign immunity and the availability of prospective injunctive relief under the Ex Parte Young doctrine. The second section discusses the scope of absolute and qualified immunity in Section 1983 suits against public officials in their individual capacities. The final section covers limitations imposed on Section 1983 claims against municipal agencies and governments.